Definition of figure of speech: Functions, Kinds, and Examples

Who doesn’t know about figurative language? Perhaps the notion of figure of speech and its kinds is more familiar among students. Because, they are still getting lessons and assignments to write poetry using figure of speech. However, did you know that we often find the use of figure of speech in everyday life. Even without us knowing it, we also often use figure of speech in communicating with other people.

Generally, the use of figure of speech in everyday life is often used in conversation with people who are already quite close. Although it is often used in everyday conversation, many of us are still not aware that sometimes we use figure of speech in our conversation. Moreover, there are many kinds of figure of speech in Indonesian.

In this article, the author will explain about the meaning of figure of speech and its kinds. In addition, the author will also explain about the functions and examples of figure of speech in Indonesia and their meanings.

Definition of Majas According to Experts

Before discussing about figure of speech too deeply, it is important for us to know the meaning of figure of speech according to the experts. Of course they will have different opinions about the meaning of figure of speech. For that, let’s look at the explanation of the meaning of figure of speech from the experts.

1. Dale and Warrior

According to Dale and Warriner, the notion of figure of speech is a figure of speech that can have many effects. The influence they mean is an influence that can be done by comparing or introducing in general. Figures are generally used in the form of short sentences. But even so, figure of speech has a value and also a sense that is able to give birth to certain connotations. In addition, figure of speech is also often referred to as an imaginative word.

2. Keraf

The definition of figure of speech according to Keraf (1988) is the effort of someone who represents his mind by using a distinctive language. Where the language can show the personality of the person. Keraf also said that there are three elements in language to make it look better. These elements include honesty, courtesy, and attractiveness.

3. Moeliono

According to Moeliono, figure of speech is distinguished by its style. Where it aims to bring an essay to life. Majas is also referred to as denotation which is used to express a word that is transferred. Not only that, figure of speech is also often used to arouse the senses of one’s readers.

4. Ratna

Meanwhile, Ratna (2009) revealed that figure of speech has a goal, namely to create aspects of beauty in a literary work. However, the beauty of style in a language in literary works is an essential element. Because, literary works can be used as a genre that is produced from human civilization and is formed because of the activities and creativity of an author.

5. Aminudin

According to Aminudin (1995), figure of speech is one of the language styles used as a technique in assembling a sentence. Where later arranged sentences can be used to explain or describe ideas in accordance with existing ideas and norms. He also said that figure of speech was presented as an insight into classical rhetoric which was valued as an outward jewellery.

While the Javanese tradition considers the opposite, where figure of speech is a kind of base rinengga or the use of language that is arranged to be beautiful. But over time, figure of speech is no longer used for mere style, but has a broader designation for songs. Where figure of speech can provide awareness for the audience.

6. Nurgiyantoro

Meanwhile, Nurgiyantoro argues that figure of speech is a style of language that has its own way of application. For example, language in prose, where figure of speech is used to convey an idea and also the thoughts of the author.

7. Pradopo

Similar to other opinions, Pradopo assesses figure of speech as a language that has a special way of using it. Where the method aims to obtain certain effects in literary works. One way is to include figure of speech.

8. Kridalaksana

More specifically, Kridalaksana (2001) reveals that language style can be used to take advantage of the wealth of language that a person has in speaking or writing literary works. In addition, figure of speech can also be used for certain things to get certain effects as well. Kridalaksana also said that the characteristics of figure of speech in general have the language characteristics of a group of literary writers.

From the explanation of the meaning of figure of speech above, we can conclude that the definition of figure of speech is a style of language that can be used to influence or convince the readers or listeners. That means, figure of speech can be used both in written and oral form.

Figurative Functions

After understanding the meaning of figure of speech, now is the time for us to learn about the function of figure of speech itself. The following are some explanations about the function of figure of speech that you can learn.

1. Build a Fun

One of the functions of figure of speech is to build a pleasure. When we use figure of speech, the words that are generally ordinary will become more beautiful and interesting and more memorable. That means, there is a sentimental value in every sentence that uses figure of speech in it.

If, words, sentences, and also an essay is intended for other people specifically or may be intended for readers. Then the figure of speech will create a sense of its own pleasure compared to ordinary sentences. Of course, pleasure here has various forms. It depends on the person receiving it.

2. Creating an Imagination

In addition to building fun, figure of speech also serves to create an imagination. Because, figure of speech can encourage someone to give birth to imagination. The existence of figure of speech in a written work does have a meaning that can be interpreted differently from one person to another. The meaning of figure of speech can vary depending on the way of thinking, knowledge, and insight of the person.

Of course this will affect the quality of imagination or the formation of the perspective of the readers or viewers. Not only that, figure of speech also has a function to bring the reader closer to the writer.

3. Bringing Readers Closer to the Author

As already mentioned above, figure of speech can also be used to connect emotionally between the reader and the author. Why is that so? Because, there are so many kinds of figure of speech. Where from the many figures of speech that exist, the emphasis is on a more essential value.

4. Essential

Something that has an essential value will indeed seem deeper. For example, when a sentence is written using two different techniques. One sentence is written in general and plain words. Then the other sentence is written using figure of speech. Of course the sentences with the figure of speech will seem more different and more meaningful.

5. Increasing Readers’ Attractiveness to Literary Works

If you pay close attention, the presence of figure of speech actually aims to attract the attention of literary connoisseurs. Where the use of figure of speech can increase the value in a literary work. Then figure of speech can also give spirit to the work. It also helps in explaining the meaning and description of the author.

6. Creating Suggestions

One of the functions of the figure of speech is to create a suggestion from the author to the reader. Besides that, actually figure of speech can also create a dense, rich, interesting and effective information effect for the readers. So that readers will feel entertained and still get information from the literary work.

Kinds of Majas

Figures are divided into several types, in one type of figure of speech may still be divided into several other types. Well, this time we will tell you, what kinds of figure of speech there are. Let’s watch it to the end!

Comparative figure of speech is one type of figure of speech that functions as a comparative sentence. Well, figure of speech comparison itself has many kinds again. Here are various kinds of comparisons.

a. Allegory

This figure of speech is usually used in story writing by using the method of making figurative sentences. This figure of speech can be made as a sentence or can also be made into a full paragraph.

b. Alusio

Alusio figure of speech is often used as a sentence that can refer to a legend, event, woman, sampiran proverb or character. This figure of speech has the disadvantage that it is often considered incomplete because it seems fast.

c. Simile

This figure of speech is usually used to compare things that are different but have the same meaning. This figure of speech can double into two figures of speech at once, namely comparison and parable.

d. Metaphor

This figure of speech uses direct comparison language style, this figure of speech is used to compare comparisons both physically, properties, objects and ideas.

e. Synesthesia

Using a language style that has changed meaning due to the exchange of responses. This figure of speech serves as the soul of a literary work.

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