Description Text: Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Types, and Examples

The term description is already familiar. This type of descriptive text can be found everywhere. There are many types of text in an article. Basically, description is describing something. But what about its application to writing? The following is a further explanation of descriptive text along with examples.

Definition of Description Text

As previously mentioned, description is a type of writing that describes or explains about a certain thing, object or situation. Descriptions can also be interpreted as rules for processing data into something that can be stated clearly and precisely so that it is easy to understand by others.

Descriptive text is a text in which the main idea is conveyed by describing certain objects, places and events in great detail. That way, the reader can seem to feel both physically and emotionally directly with what is described in the text.

Etymologically, the term description comes from the Latin ‘describere’ which means to describe or provide an explanation of something. According to Henry Guntur Tarigan, description is writing that can describe a story with the aim of inviting the reader to understand, feel and enjoy something that is discussed in the text, such as activities, emotions and others.

According to Gorys Keraf, description is a piece of writing that is used to convey the thing or object being discussed so that the reader can see for himself the object described directly. The author of the descriptive text must be able to transfer the results of feelings, details of the form found in a thing or object.

According to Felicia Nuradi, description is writing that has the aim of describing the shape of the object of observation, nature, taste and style by relying on the five human senses in the explanation process. Meanwhile, in the Big Indonesian Dictionary, description is an explanation, description or description in clear and detailed written words.

Writing a descriptive text can be a lesson for the writer himself. This is because writing a descriptive text means helping in training sensitivity because the author explains the reality of a certain object or atmosphere. In addition, writing descriptive text can also train us to be able to see the details of the elements of objects or forms in a concrete way.

The descriptive text also has a purpose, namely to describe something related to experience based on the observations of all the five senses. Good to feel, hear, touch and see. From there the writer can create the reader’s imagination so that they can feel firsthand what is discussed in the text.

In writing descriptive text, the writer is required to describe the object in great detail. This is because the descriptive text has the aim of creating an influence on the reader’s five senses so that it can produce a certain impression based on the imagination of each reader.

In addition to descriptive text, there are also other areas related to description, namely descriptive statistics. Generally, descriptive statistics are intended for research. This book written by Syofian Siregar can be helpful for people who want to understand descriptive statistics to problem solving.

In addition to the book by Syofian Siregar, descriptive statistics is also explained by Sisi Silvia. In it, Silvia explained about understanding descriptive statistics and also how to make tables and graphs.

Features of Text Description

  • Descriptive text has characteristics that make it easier for readers to recognize the type of text. The following are the characteristics of descriptive text:
  • Descriptive text contains the description or description of an object, such as objects, places, atmosphere and others.
  • The description text contains an explanation that involves all the five senses, sight, hearing, smell, to touch.
  • Description text contains the description of the physical characteristics and properties of an object in detail and clearly.
  • Descriptive text makes the reader feel as if he can feel and even experience the events described in the text.
  • Descriptive text generally contains special words to describe the object in as much detail as possible. For example, write about color, red-gray, blue-purple and others.
  • Descriptive text can also use phrases that contain nouns. For example, Pak Dadang is a strict school principal.
  • The descriptive text contains adjectives that are useful to describe. For example, two red shirts, a diligent student and others.
  • Descriptive text can use transitive verbs to provide information about a subject. For example, the student was wearing a gray white uniform.
  • Descriptive text contains verbs of feelings and opinions which aim to express the author’s personal view on the subject being written. For example, I think blackie is a smart dog, I’m sure this book can answer the problem you have, and so on.
  • The descriptive text contains adverbs to provide additional information, for example, loudly, in the field, in the afternoon, and so on.
  • The descriptive text contains figurative language or metaphors. For example, his skin is white as snow, this car is fast like a cheetah, and so on.

Descriptive Text Structure

The descriptive text also has a structure in its writing, namely:

Title: the title in the descriptive paragraph must contain at least three aspects, namely relevant, provocative or interesting and also brief. The title of the essay represents the story which is an implied summary of the entire writing. This title has the function of attracting interest and a promotional name.

Identification: determining the identity of people, objects and other things,

Classification: a constituent element with a system of a group that conforms to pre-determined rules and standards.

Description: contains descriptions or explanations of objects or things discussed in the text.

Conclusion: a conclusion is an affirmation on things that are considered important. Conclusions can be included or not.

Types of Descriptive Text

Based on the content of the text, descriptive text is further divided into several types. Here are the types of descriptive text.

  1. Subjective description: subjective descriptive text is a descriptive text that describes an object based on the impression that the author has.
  2. Spatial description: spatial description text is descriptive text that only describes objects such as places, rooms or objects.
  3. Objective description: objective description text is descriptive text that describes the object according to the actual situation, so that the reader can imagine the situation without any frills from the author’s opinion.
  4. Imaginative description: Imaginative descriptive text is a text that contains a picture or painting of a place where an event takes place. The description must be seen from various angles so that the place can be clearly described both in the reader’s mind and feelings.
  5. Factual description: factual description text is a descriptive text that describes an object, both lawful and a person, by revealing its identity as it is, so that the reader can imagine the actual situation.

Write Description Text

  1. Writing descriptive text has stages that can make it easier for writers to arrange descriptive text well. The following are the stages of writing a descriptive text.
  2. First of all, the writer must choose the topic that he wants to serve as the basis for the description in the text.
  3. Next, the writer must observe the object to be described.
  4. The author must also collect data such as figures, graphs, illustrations or statistics.
  5. Next, the writer sets the appropriate paragraph development pattern.
  6. After that, the author compiles a paragraph outline consisting of the initial idea.
  7. The author develops the paragraph framework into a complete paragraph by using coherent and logical sentences.

The last stage is giving the title.

For students who are writing scientific papers and are confused about how to write a persuasive background, they can read a book by Hafiz Gunawan.

Example of a description text

1. Descriptive text about animals

Cheetah is an animal that is a member of the cat family. They are big cats native to Africa and central Iran. Cheetahs are the fastest land animals that are estimated to be able to run at speeds of 80 to 128 km / h.

They have a body designed to run fast, a light body, long thin legs and a long tail. Usually they have a body length of up to 1.5 m.

Adult cheetahs can weigh up to 72 kg. The head is small and round, has a short muzzle and black stripes that look like the shape of a tear. The skin color is brownish yellow to creamy white or pale and is mostly covered with evenly spaced black spots.

Cheetahs live in three groups, females and cubs, a solitary male and male coalition. The female cheetah leads a nomadic life. They search for prey in a wide home range.

While the male cheetah is more sedentary and builds a small area but with abundant prey and also access to female cheetahs. Cheetahs are active during the day, especially at dawn and dusk.

They are animals that can eat prey ranging from small to medium in size, even up to 40kg. They prefer medium-sized prey such as impala, and deer. Cheetahs usually stalk prey from a distance of 60-70 m, charge towards it and then tackle it during the chase.

After that they will bite the throat until the prey dies. The female cheetah becomes pregnant within three months and can give birth to three to four cubs. Cheetah chicks are very vulnerable to being preyed on by other animals such as hyenas or lions. Cheetah cubs will be weaned at four months of age and begin to be independent at 20 months of age.

2. Descriptive text about someone

Michael Joseph Jackson, or more familiarly called MJ, born on August 29, 1958, is an American singer, dancer and songwriter. Known as the King of pop, he is also considered one of the most important cultural figures of the 20th century.

Over a career spanning four decades, his contributions to music, dance and fashion have made him a global figure in popular culture. Michael Jackson has also influenced artists both in the field of music and visual artists.

He is the one who pioneered quite complicated dance moves such as the moonwalk, and robots. The man who died in 2009 has become one of the most awarded music artists in music history.

The eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael Jackson first made his professional debut in 1964 with his older brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as members of the Jackson 5.

Jackson began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, and became a solo star with the 1979 album Off the Wall. Her music videos, “Beat It”, “Billie Jean”, and “Thriller” from her 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and turning the media into an art form and promotional tool.

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